Four-Fold Visions of

the American West

Reason Versus Transcendence

from Alaska to New Mexico

November 3, 2017

Horses evolved in North America during the Pliocene Epoch, some 4 to 4.5 million years ago. Superbly adaptable, this subspecies of the genus Equus had, within 2 million years, spread to South America and, by way of the Bering land bridge, to Asia and beyond.

            In the Americas, the horse flourished until 12,000 to 10,000 years ago, when, for reasons that are not clear, the species disappeared. Disease, climate change, and the arrival of meat-eating humans likely played a part. Because the Bering land bridge had become submerged, horses that inhabited Asia were...

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